Northumberland has been described as 'THE castle county of England' and it is true that because of its position on the Border with Scotland, the North East had a greater need for military architecture for a longer period of time than most other areas of the country.
As a result, military and fortified buildings of a bewildering variety of styles and types continued to be built. Many of these smaller defensible buildings, including bastles and unique defendable churches are among the North East's most characteristic buildings.
And then there are the town fortifications. Newcastle's town walls begun in the 1250s were described as being among the most magnificent in Europe. Whilst Berwick's revolutionary Elizabethan ramparts - a radical combination of earth mounds and stone walls - still exist almost in their entirety today.
Map of the Newcastle upon Tyne Electric Supply Co Ltd (NESCo) and The County of Durham Electrical Power Distribution Co Ltd electric power distribution network, about 1907